Physician Education and Scholarship Center


It is defined as a condition in which excess body fat may compromise patient health. Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to determine if one is obese and is calculated as wight/height, with weight in kilogram and height in meters.

The following scales are provided by the American Medical Association (AMA):

Healthy weight BMI = 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2

Overweight BMI = 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2

Obese BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2

Extreme obesity, also BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2 known as morbid obesity
  • In the United States, appoximately 36% of adults and 17% of children and adolescents between 2-19 are obese (
  • Women from lower income families generally experience greater prevalence of obesity than those from higher-income families. (American Medical Association)
  • Fifty percent of African American women and 40% of Hispanic women are obese compared with 30% of white woman. (American Medical Association)
  • Mexican American men have a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (75%) than non-Hispanic white men (67%) and non-Hispanic black men (61%). (American Medical Association)
  • Among men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increases with advancing age until the sixth decade, after which it begins to decline. (American Medical Association)

Contribution to the development of obesity include dietary habits, socioeconomic status, level of activity, race, sex, age, metabolic, endocrine and genetic factors (

• Premature death
• Insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes
• Hyperlipidemia
• Hypertension
• Coronary heart disease
• Congestive heart failure
• Stroke
• Some types of cancer
(endometrial, colon, kidney, gallbladder, postmenopausal breast cancer)
• Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
• Gallstones, gallbladder disease
• Gout
• Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
• Pregnancy complications
• Menstrual irregularities
• Bladder control problems, stress incontinence
• Osteoarthritis
• Obstructive sleep apnea, respiratory problems
• Infertility
• Psychological disorders
(eg, depression, eating disorders, distorted body image, low self-esteem)


      The annual cost of managing obesity in the United States is over $190 billion accounting for 21% of the national health expenditure (

      Obesity predisposes itself to include some medical conditions such as, obstructive sleep apnea, malignancy, coronary artery disease and osteoarthritis.

      Management of Obesity includes but is not limited to diet modification and increased physical activity to acheive weight loss.





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