Physician Education and Scholarship Center


Hypertension is defined as blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. In the United States over 76 million people older than 20 years have high blood pressure. In 2008, it accounted for approximately 15% of all deaths in the U.S. with an estimated healthcare cost of over $50 billion (

Causes include Idiopathic, renal disorders, vascular disorders, endocrine disorders, toxins, drugs, nervous system disorders and systemic disorders.

It is typically asymptomatic but some symptoms include blurred vision, chest pain, fatigue, nosebleeds and headache.

Physical examination will reveal radio-femoral delay, retinopathy, renal bruits and palpable kidneys.

Management includes exercise, dieting, weight loss, hypertensive medications, surgical intervention, and lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, reduced alcohol intake and limitation of salt intake.

Complications that can arise are stroke, aneurysm, heart failure and hypertensive retinopathy.

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